|Exam Date :99/08/03
||Start time :04:41
||Deadline :8 Minutes
|Click on your choice in each question
|20UT71M_0271/ 2.5/23.1||Konkoor/Reading Comprehension||تالیفی||
Space Exploration is the quest to use space travel to discover the nature of the
universe beyond earth. Todays' Space Exploration started in 1957 with the launch of the
first artificial satellite, but since ancient times people have dreamed of leaving their home
planet and exploring other worlds. Everybody throughout history has had a question like
what the "heavens" are made from. The Greeks believed that the stars and space were
made of a material called "Quitenses", and another culture once thought that the stars
were made of their peoples passed away. We know now what stars (or suns) are really
made of; they are made of various gases that explode over and over again. Then mankind
made advancements in 20thi century to travel into space. The hardest part of traveling into space was
developing rockets that were powerful enough and reliable enough to boost an object into space. Space is
also a harsh environment for humans and human-made machines. Scientists, engineers, and designers must
make space crafts that can withstand these extreme conditions and more.
1. What is space exploration according to this passage?
A) Question of universe
B) Discovering the comets in universe
C) Using space travel to discover about universe
D) Using space travel to discover stars
2. What was the starting point of space exploration?
A) Invention of telescope
B) Traveling to the moon
C) Building rockets during World War II
D) Sending the first satellite into the orbit
3. What is "Quitenses" according to the Greeks?
A) The material that universe is made of
B) The planets and stars
C) Spirits of the dead people
D) Gases that explode over and over
4. According to this passage scientists are making space crafts that _____ .
A) are harsh to the space
B) are strong and heavy
C) are adaptable to the space
D) are made of harsh alloys
5. What does "they" refer to?
|20UT71M_0095/ 2.5/44.5||Konkoor/Reading Comprehension||کنکور کارشناسی، آزمون تخصصی زبان انگلیسی ، سال87||
Capital punishment is the death penalty for a crime. It is usually carried out by hanging, electrocution, beheading, injection or tiring squad. From ancient times until the 18th century people were sentenced to death for a great number of crimes, some trivial by today's standards. The sentence was often accompanied by torture. Because of the work of social reformers the death penalty is now much less common. One of the early reformers was William Penn, the founder of the state of Pennsylvania. He said that capital punishment should only be used for murder or treason. Gradually, through the 18lh century, writers and thinkers began to influence governments in many countries and persuade them that the death penalty was unfair and inefficient.
One of the main arguments against capital punishment is that it is unnecessary, as life imprisonment is just as effective in preventing any particular person from committing the same kind of crime again. It is said that capital punishment does not stop people committing crimes such as murder and treason as they are carried out by people so determined to commit them that they do not care how they may be punished if they are caught. It is also said that the penalty satisfies feelings of revenge that people may have, rather than brings about justice. On a purely practical level it is also thought to be unfair, since it is possible that some people will be wrongly convicted of crimes. Once a person is executed it is. of course, too late to retry the case if new evidence appears. This is often said to be more likely to happen to a poor person who may not be able to afford to appeal against a conviction.
Some people still argue that capital punishment should be used and should be brought back in some countries that have abolished it. They base their argument mainly on a view that capital punishment is a deterrent.
Many countries have abolished capital punishment completely. They include Sweden. Norway. Denmark, the Netherlands. Austria. Germany. Portugal, and Switzerland, in Europe. It has also been abolished in Venezuela and Brazil, as well as in Canada and New Zealand. Great Britain and Australia retain it for treason, but not for murder. In the United States it has been abolished in certain states. But in states where it does exist, it may not necessarily be used. Sometimes a person is sentenced to death, but the sentence is "commuted" to life imprisonment, for a special reason or reasons.
1. What is the purpose of this passage?
A) To inform
B) To define
C) To complain
D) To entertain
2. What does the author mean by the statement "the penalty satisfies feelings of revenge that people may have?"
A) The punishment will make people obey the law.
B) people feel satisfied after committing crimes.
C) people may have the courage to commit crimes again.
D) The punishment may help calm down angry people.
3. The second paragraph is mainly concerned whit _____
A) death penalty versus life imprisonment
B) crime prevention by governments
C) effects of capital punishment.
D) arguments against capital punishment.
4. According to the passage, supporters of capital punishment mainly argue that it
A) brings about justice
B) is fair and efficient
C) stops people from committing crimes
D) should only be used for murder or treason
5. In Australia and Great Britain, capital punishment _____
A) has been abolished completely
B) is no longer used for murder
C) has been changed to a less severe punishment
D) is much less common than in the United States
6. It can be inferred from the passage that _____
A) nowadays governments use the death penalty for man) crimes
B) the death penalty was very common before the 18n century
C) many writers and thinkers are in favor of the death penalty
D) life imprisonment is more effective than capital punishment