|Exam Date :1400/02/03
||Start time :22:37
||Deadline :8 Minutes
|Click on your choice in each question
|20UT71M_0306/ 2.5/23.5||Konkoor/Reading Comprehension||تالیفی||
The Chinese invented paper in A.D. 105. They mixed the bark of a tree and rags
with water, put a screen into the mixture, and lifted out a thin piece of wet paper. They
dried the paper in the sun.
The Chinese kept their secret of how to make paper until a war with Muslims in the ninth
century. The Muslims took Chinese papermakers back to their country. The art of
papermaking soon spread throughout the Muslim world.
The Mayan Indians in Central America and Pacific Islanders also discovered how to
make paper, but their knowledge never spread to the rest of the world.
For centuries, all paper was made by hand. Rags were the principal material. Then a French scientist watched
a wasp chewing up pieces of wood. The wasp mixed the wood with chemicals from its mouth and made a
paper nest. The scientist realized that people could make paper from wood, too. Finally, in the eighteenth
century, a Frenchman invented a machine to make paper from wood.
Today most paper is made from wood. It is made by machine. Canada and the United States lead the world
The word "paper" comes from papyrus. The ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a plant that grew in the Nile
River, to write on.
1. What can be a good heading for the article?
A) Paper: throughout the history
D) the Art of Paper
2. What does "their" refer to?
A) the Mayan Indians
B) Pacific Islanders
C) the Mayan Indians and Pacific Islanders
3. What was the origin of paper-making?
B) Mayan Indians
C) a wasp chewing pieces of woods
D) bark and rag
4. Where does the word paper originate from?
A) ancient Egyptians
B) papyrus in the Nile River
C) the Mayan plant
D) bark and rags
5. How did the idea of making paper out of wood start? It started when _____ .
A) a French scientist invented a machine.
B) a scientist saw the nest.
C) a French scientist watched a wasp making its nest.
D) the wasp chewed up the peace of woods.
|20UT71M_0108/ 2.5/38.8||Konkoor/Reading Comprehension||کنکور کارشناسی، آزمون تخصصی زبان انگلیسی ، سال86||
Language is a fundamental part of total human behavior, and behaviorists have examined it as such and sought to formulate consistent theories of first language acquisition. The behaviorist approach focuses on the immediately perceptible aspects of linguistic behavior the publicly observable responses and the relationships or associations between those response and events in the world surrounding them. A behaviorist might consider effective language behavior to be the production of correct responses to stimuli. If a particular response is reinforced, it then becomes habitual, or conditioned. Thus children produce linguistic responses that are reinforced. This is true of their comprehension as well as production responses, though to consider comprehension is to wander just a bit out of the publicly observable realm. One learns to comprehend an utterance by reacting appropriately to it and by being reinforced for that reaction.
One of the best - known attempts to construct a behaviorist model of linguistic behavior is embodied in B.F. Skinner's (1957) classic. Verbal Behavior. Shinner is commonly known for his experiments with animal behavior in "Shinner's boxes", but he has also gained recognition for his contributions to education through teaching machines and programmed learning. Skinner's theory of verbal behavior was an extension of his general theory of learning by operant conditioning. Operant conditioning refers to conditioning in which the organism (in this case, a human being) emits response, or operant (a sentence or utterance ), without necessarily observable stimuli; that operant is maintained (learned ) by reinforcement (for example, a positive verbal or nonverbal response for another person). If a child says "want milk" and a parent gives the child some milk, the operant is reinforced and. over repeated instance, is conditioned. According to Skinner, verbal behavior, like other behavior, is controlled by its consequences are rewarding, behavior is maintained and is increased in strength and perhaps frequency. When consequences are punishing, or when there is lack of reinforcement entirely, the behavior is weakened and eventually extinguished.
1. The best topic for the passage would be _____
A) The Features of Linguistic Behavior
B) Theories of First Language Acquisition
C) Language as a Main Part of Behavior
D) The Behaviorist Approach to LI Acquisition
2. According to behaviorists, language acquisition _____
A) is reinforced by positive responses
B) conditions total human behavior
C) is a kind of habit formation
D) can be explained through different formulas
3. Skinner used boxes to _____
A) study the behavior of animals
B) prove classical theories of learning
C) experiment with verbal behavior
D) teach some animals to use language
4. The word "emits" in line 15 means _____
B) picks up
C) sends out
5. It is understood from the passage that Skinner's verbal behavior _____
A) was strong and frequent
B) had rewarding consequences
C) gained recognition in 1957
D) was the same as linguistic behavior
6. According to the passage, it is true that _____
A) an operant is either a response or a stimulus
B) conditioning is a way to repeat operands
C) reinforcement can make behavior conditioned
D) uncontrolled behavior should be punished