|Exam Date :1402/12/06
|Start time :13:10
|Deadline :9 Minutes
|Click on your choice in each question
Within a short time after the outbreak of the Second World War, Britain was without imports of many vital pharmaceuticals that had formerly come from Japan, Germany and
the Far East. As a result, the first wartime government set up systematic research into the cultivation and medical use of herbs, By 1940, women's voluntary organizations
had been drawn into a national campaign to gather wild herbs, Up and down the country, County Herb Committees were organized to oversee the gathering, drying,
distillation and distribution of the medicinal herbs. Lay people were given brief locally-based training in how to recognize herbs, store and dry them. Farmers were given
subsidies to farm certain naturally hard-to-find herbs. By 1943, every county had its herb committee and during the five years of the Second World War, over 750 tons of
dried herbs were gathered and turned into medicines.
1. We learn from the passage that, before World War II, Britain _____ .
A) rarely traded with Germany or the Far East
B) traded primarily with Germany, Japan and the Far East
C) imported raw materials from Japan, Germany and the Far East and exported pharmaceuticals to them
D) was largely dependent on Germany, Japan and the Far East for its pharmaceuticals
E) thought of exporting dried herbs for pharmaceutical purposes
2. It is vividly described in the passage how, during World War II, the British government _____ .
A) banned the import of all kinds of pharmaceuticals from Germany, Japan and the Far East
B) gave priority to the import of medicines
C) encouraged scientific research into improving the efficiency and variety of vital pharmaceuticals
D) only gave subsidies to those farmers who were interested in growing herbs
E) took serious measures to ensure that the country should not be short of medicines
3. It is clear from the passage that, of the special arrangements made in Britain during the war, one was _____ .
A) the reduction of imports from Germany and Japan
B) the setting up of local and national organizations to produce medicinal herbs
C) the introduction of new agricultural policies to increase production in every sphere
D) the launching of a national women's campaign for the distribution of medicines throughout the country
E) the training of local people in the production of herb-based medicines
Restorative justice does not ask 'how do we punish?', but instead asks 'how do we get people to take responsibility for what they have done?'. Paying a fine, or even going to
prison are easy options for some people. They are all ways that offenders can avoid taking responsibility, because in this way they never have to face the human reality of
what they have done. Prisons have been called "universities for criminals". Young people go in for unpaid fines, often for victimless crimes, and they come out with a degree
in burglary or worse. I am not saying that the answer is to tear down all prisons. Far from it. There are people who are dangerous to society, who the community will want
to keep locked up. Prison can also be part of a sentencing package under restorative justice. But the vast majority of people in prison are not violent, and do not need to be
there. What they do need is to be brought face to face with the human reality of the harm they have caused, and they must be given an opportunity to rectify
1. In the opinion of the author, prisons _____ .
A) teach people to become better citizens
B) serve no useful purpose whatsoever
C) should be remodeled on the lines of universities and polytechnics
D) should largely be reserved for violent people who constitute a threat to society
E) are essential as more and more violence occurs in society
2. According to the writer, such a traditional punishment as fining _____ .
A) helps to keep the crime-rate down
B) actually helps offenders to avoid facing the fact that they have hurt society
C) has been shown to be far more effective than imprisonment
D) is highly effective if the offenders are young
E) is regarded as a harder option than imprisonment
3. According to the passage, restorative justice _____ .
A) regards most criminals as not being responsible for the crimes they have committed
B) is only concerned with punishment when the criminal has proved violent
C) concentrates on criminal acts in which there is no victim
D) is too idealized and has little chance of working successfully
E) is less concerned with punishment than with helping the offender to become a better citizen
A great many books have been written on computers, computer programming languages, particularly Fortran. To produce another book on Fortran, even the newest Fortran
IV, probably seems unreasonable to most, and it is with mild trepidation that, I, the author, embark on this project. However, several good reasons can be stated for doing
just that. Most computer professionals will agree that the field of computer and information science has quickly become a valid discipline for academia and that rapid changes
are occurring in computer programming languages. Both of these facts demand that a new direction be taken in presenting the subject.
1. From the passage we understand that the writer is somewhat apprehensive in case _____ .
A) computer sales should drop sharply
B) developments in computer programming will become more and more costly
C) his book will be felt, by many people, to be superfluous
D) computer programming should be taken over by professionals
E) programming languages should become far more complicated
2. According to the passage, publications on computer technology _____ .
A) are only concerned with Fortran computer programming
B) have already reached a very high number
C) are brought out by academia for academia
D) invariably cause a great deal of public reaction
E) are largely repetitive and very costly
3. The writer of this passage feels that his new book on Fortran is justified because _____ .
A) computer science is a new science with little relevant literature
B) computer professionals have not as yet recognized the changes taking place in computer science
C) it will boost the sale of computers throughout the world
D) it introduces a new approach to computer programming languages
E) it will change the concept of computer science among academia
The shopping center emerged in the early 1900s in the suburbs that encircled American cities. Suburbs of that time tended to be chiefly residential and to depend on the
traditional city centers for shopping. The first suburban commercial centers had three identifiable features; they consisted of a number of stores built and leased by a single
developer; they were usually situated at an important intersection, and they provided plenty of free, off-street parking. These "shopping villages" resembled small-town
shopping districts, both in their architecture which was carefully traditional, and in their layout, which integrated them into the surrounding neighborhood. The stores faced
the street and the parking lots were usually in the rear.
1. Before the introduction of shopping centers those living in the residential suburban areas _____ .
A) were anxious to keep commercial activities there to a minimum
B) usually preferred to go to nearby small towns in order to do their shopping
C) found parking a great problem when they went downtown to shop
D) had to go into the center of the city to do their shopping
E) felt that shopping facilities could not be integrated into such neighborhoods
2. A popular site for the early shopping centers in the United States was _____ .
A) the very heart of a big city with roads directly serving all the suburbs
B) one near an important road junctions with enough space to provide adequate parking facilities
C) the villages bordering on the suburbs of a town, since they too would benefit from the facilities
D) a suitable point far away from two or three suburban areas
E) one that was in the hands of a single developer and architect
3. The new "shopping villages" were reminiscent of small-town shopping areas _____ .
A) since many architects felt these could hardly be integrated effectively into suburban conditions
B) although the stores faced onto the parking lots, not the streets
C) as regards both the architectural style and the arrangement of the buildings
D) even though the architecture was very different
E) as most developers wanted to bring something new into the commercial activities of the region